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Moose

Average Weight/Measurements
On average an adult moose stands (1.5 - 1.8 m)(5 to 6 feet) high. Males weigh (850 to 1180 lbs.)(385 - 534 kg) and females (600 to 800 lbs)(270 - 362 kg).  Moose in Newfoundland can have an antler spread of up to 60 inches or more.

Population
There are an estimated 120,000 Moose On the Island of Newfoundland, moose is an important game animal, with approximately 22,000 being harvested yearly.

Status
Introduced to Gander Bay, Newfoundland in 1878 and to Howley, Newfoundland in 1904.

Food
During the winter it feeds on twigs and shrubs - about (18 - 22 kg) (40 to 50 pounds) a day. In the summer moose eat many types of leaves of trees and shrubs such as birch and maple. They also feeds on water plants consuming a total of (22 - 27 kg) (50 to 60 lbs.) a day

Lifespan

Moose can live 20 years or more in the wild.

Appearance
Males have palmate flat antlers with small prongs projecting. The front legs are longer than the back giving the moose a humped appearance. It has a short and stubby hairy tail, short neck, long nose, and ears like a mule. Under the throat hangs a pendant of fur about a foot long called a bell. In color the moose is dark brown to reddish brown with grayish white legs.

Breeding Biology

Moose often take more than one mate, but the bull usually stays with a given cow during most of the breeding season which begins in mid September.

Notes:

  • An important big game animal for meat and trophies.
  • Moose can swim as fast as two men paddling a canoe and run up to 56 kmph on land.
  • In North America the moose is the largest member of the deer family
  • Four animals were introduced to Newfoundland (Howley) in 1904 from New Brunswick.
    In 1930 Newfoundland had its first hunting season for moose.
Caribou

Average weight/measurements
Average weight is (400 lbs)(180 kg) for males; (300 lbs)(135 kg) for females. Height of about (3.5 - 4 ft)(1.05 - 1.2 m). Antlers may spread up to (5 ft)(1.5 m) wide.

Habitat
Native to Newfoundland. Newfoundland is the only place on the planet that Woodland Caribou may be hunted.

Woodland Caribou
Rangifer tarandus

Status
Caribou prefer mostly barren land during the summer months, moving to areas of mixed forests during the colder months.

Food
Caribou are herbivores. Their main food source is lichens, which gives caribou an advantage in the more harsh northern areas of its range where vegetation is scarce. The common "caribou moss" is actually a type of lichen (Cladonia rangiferina), which is a major food for caribou. Caribou also eat vegetation such as grasses, sedges, birch and willow leaves, and mosses.

Lifespan
About 15 years.

Appearance

The caribou's body is dark brown, with lighter patches around the neck and rump, and white above each hoof. All males and some females have dark velvety antlers that are flattened and project forward. The males shed their antlers in November or December, after mating, while the females and young may carry their’s through the winter months. Caribou have large, concave hooves that are ideal for traveling over snow or soft ground, and for digging in search of snow-covered lichens. The hooves are sharply edged for ice travel and are wide to serve as paddles when swimming.

Breeding Biology

Caribou mate around mid-October and males can have many mates. After a gestation period of about 230 days the calf is born in May/June. The calf is weaned after about two months and joins the herd in the fall migration. Male caribou begin to mate around the age of 1.5 years.

Notes:

  • Caribou are the only genus of the deer family where both sexes are antlered.
  • A caribou is featured on Canada’s 25 cent piece.
  • Calves can walk and run within two hours after birth.

BLACK BEAR

 

Newfoundland black bears are the largest on the planet. They can weigh anywhere from (60 to 300 kg) (132 to 661 lbs). A black bears ears are rounded and the eyes are small. Its eyesight is poor, and it uses its senses of hearing and smelling. Its tail is short. Its feet are well furred and it walks with the entire bottom portion of the foot touching the ground like humans.  Each foot has five strong curved claws used for digging and tearing out roots, stumps and old logs when searching for food  

Black bears are omnivorous and will eat almost anything available. Most of the food is vegetation, especially when berries and nuts are available in the late summer and autumn.  They will also eat fish and small mammals. In the spring some bears will prey upon newborn moose or caribou calves.  35% - 40% of moose and caribou calves are killed annually by black bears.  Of course a tree containing honey is always a treat. Bears drink a lot of water and are usually found near water areas.

Black bears live in the wilderness. Although they may be found in a variety of habitats, the black bear prefers heavily wooded areas and dense bush land.  In the autumn when days become shorter and cooler, bears begin to look for a den. Under a tree stump or overturned log, or in a hole in a hillside all make a good place for a den. Most dens are only large enough for one bear to curl up in.